Glossary E-F

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Eagle-Barrett Syndrome (EE-gul BAH-rut sin-drohm)
See Prune Belly Syndrome.

Electrocoagulation (ee-LEK-troh-koh-ag-yoo-LAY-shun)
A procedure that uses an electrical current passed through an endoscope to stop bleeding in the digestive tract and to remove affected tissue.

Electrolytes (ee-LEK-troh-lyts)
Chemicals such as salts and minerals needed for various functions in the body.

Encopresis (en-koh-PREE-sis)
Accidental passage of a bowel movement. A common disorder in children.

Endoscope (EN-doh-skohp)
A small, flexible tube with a light and a lens on the end. It is used to look into the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, colon, or rectum. It can also be used to take tissue from the body for testing or to take color photographs of the inside of the body. Colonoscopes and sigmoidoscopes are types of endoscopes.

Endoscopic Papillotomy (en-doh-SKAW-pik pah-pih-LAW-tuh-mee)
See Endoscopic Sphincterotomy.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) (en-doh-SKAW-pik REH-troh-grayd koh-LAN-jee-oh-PANG-kree-uh-TAW-gruh-fee)
A test using an x-ray to look into the bile and pancreatic ducts. The doctor inserts an endoscope through the mouth into the duodenum and bile ducts. Dye is sent through the tube into the ducts. The dye makes the ducts show up on an x-ray.

Endoscopic Sphincterotomy (en-doh-SKAW-pik sfeenk-tuh-RAW-tuh-mee)
An operation to cut the muscle between the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct. The operation uses a catheter and a wire to remove gallstones or other blockages. Also called endoscopic papillotomy.

Endoscopy (en-DAW-skuh-pee)
A procedure that uses an endoscope to diagnose or treat a condition.

Enema (EN-uh-muh)
A liquid put into the rectum to clear out the bowel or to administer drugs or food.

Enteral Nutrition (EN-tuh-rul noo-TRISH-un)
A way to provide food through a tube placed in the nose, the stomach or the small intestine. A tube in the nose is called a nasogastric or nasoenteral tube. A tube that goes through the skin into the stomach is called a gastrostomy or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). A tube into the small intestine is called a jejunostomy or percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ) tube. Also called tube feeding. See also Gastrostomy and Jejunostomy.

Enteritis (en-tuh-RY-tis)
An irritation of the small intestine.

Enterocele (EN-tuh-roh-seel)
A hernia in the intestine. See also Hernia.

Enteroscopy (en-tuh-RAW-skuh-pee)
An examination of the small intestine with an endoscope. The endoscope is inserted through the mouth and stomach into the small intestine.

Enterostomal Therapy (ET) Nurse (en-tuh-roh-STOH-mul THEH-ruh-pee nerss)
A nurse who cares for patients with an ostomy. See also Ostomy.

Enterostomy (en-tuh-RAW-stuh-mee)
An ostomy, or opening, into the intestine through the abdominal wall.

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) (EN-zym linkt IM-yoo-noh SOR-bent ASS-ay)
A blood test used to find Helicobacter pylori bacteria. Also used to diagnose an ulcer.

Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis (ee-oh-sin-oh-FIL-ik gah-stroh-en-tuh-RY-tis)
Infection and swelling of the lining of the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. The infection is caused by white blood cells (eosinophils).

Epithelial Cells (eh-puh-THEE-lee-ul selz)
One of many kinds of cells that form the epithelium and absorb nutrients. See also Epithelium.

Epithelium (eh-puh-THEE-lee-um)
The inner and outer tissue covering digestive tract organs.

ERCP
See Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

Eructation (ee-ruk-TAY-shun)
Belching.

Erythema Nodosum (EH-rih-THEE-muh noh-DOH-sum)
Red swellings or sores on the lower legs during flareups of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. These sores show that the disease is active. They usually go away when the disease is treated.

Escherichia coli (eh-shuh-RIK-ee-uh KOH-ly)
Bacteria that cause infection and irritation of the large intestine. The bacteria are spread by unclean water, dirty cooking utensils or undercooked meat. See also Gastroenteritis.

Esophageal Atresia (eh-saw-fuh-JEE-uhl uh-TREEZ-ya)
A birth defect. The esophagus lacks the opening to allow food to pass into the stomach.

Esophageal Manometry (eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul mah-NAW-muh-tree)
A test to measure muscle tone in the esophagus.

Esophageal Ph Monitoring (eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul pee-aytch mah-nih-tuh-reeng)
A test to measure the amount of acid in the esophagus.

Esophageal Reflux (eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul REE-fluks)
See Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

Esophageal Spasms (eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul SPAH-zumz)
Muscle cramps in the esophagus that cause pain in the chest.

Esophageal Stricture (eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul STRIK-sher)
A narrowing of the esophagus often caused by acid flowing back from the stomach. This condition may require surgery.

Esophageal Ulcer (eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul UL-sur)
A sore in the esophagus. Caused by long-term inflammation or damage from the residue of pills. The ulcer may cause chest pain.

Esophageal Varices (eh-saw-fuh-JEE-ul VAIR-uh-seez)
Stretched veins in the esophagus that occur when the liver is not working properly. If the veins burst, the bleeding can cause death.

Esophagitis (eh-saw-fuh-JY-tis)
An irritation of the esophagus, usually caused by acid that flows up from the stomach.

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (eh-SAW-fuh-goh-GAH-stroh-doo-AW-duh-NAW-skuh-pee)
Exam of the upper digestive tract using an endoscope. See Endoscopy.

Esophagus (eh-SAW-fuh-gus)
The organ that connects the mouth to the stomach. Also called gullet.

Excrete (ek-SKREET)
To get rid of waste from the body.

Extrahepatic Biliary Tree (ek-strah-heh-PAH-tik BILL-ee-air-ee tree)
The bile ducts located outside the liver.

Failure to Thrive (FAYL-yoor too THRYV)
A condition that occurs when a baby does not grow normally.

Familial Polyposis (fuh-MIL-ee-ul pah-luh-POH-sis)
An inherited disease causing many polyps in the colon. The polyps often cause cancer.

Fats
One of the three main classes of food and a source of energy in the body. Bile dissolves fats, and enzymes break them down. This process moves fats into cells.

Fatty Liver (FAH-tee LIH-vur)
The buildup of fat in liver cells. The most common cause is alcoholism. Other causes include obesity, diabetes, and pregnancy. Also called steatosis.

Fecal Fat Test (FEE-kul fat test)
A test to measure the body’s ability to break down and absorb fat. The patient eats a fat-free diet for 2 to 3 days before the test and collects stool samples for examination.

Fecal Incontinence (FEE-kul in-KAN-tuh-nuns)
Being unable to hold stool in the colon and rectum.

Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) (FEE-kul uh-KULT blud test)
A test to see whether there is blood in the stool that is not visible to the naked eye. A sample of stool is placed on a chemical strip that will change color if blood is present. Hidden blood in the stool is a common symptom of colorectal cancer.

Feces (FEE-seez)
Stool.

Fermentation (FER-mun-TAY-shun)
The process of bacteria breaking down undigested food and releasing alcohols, acids, and gases.

Fiber (FY-bur)
A substance in foods that comes from plants. Fiber helps with digestion by keeping stool soft so that it moves smoothly through the colon. Soluble (SAWL-yoo-buhl) fiber dissolves in water. Soluble fiber is found in beans, fruit and oat products. Insoluble (IN-sawl-yoo-buhl) fiber does not dissolve in water. Insoluble fiber is found in whole-grain products and vegetables.

Fistula (FIST-yoo-luh)
An abnormal passage between two organs or between an organ and the outside of the body. Caused when damaged tissues come into contact with each other and join together while healing.

Flatulence (FLAT-yoo-lunss)
Excessive gas in the stomach or intestine. May cause bloating.

Flatus (FLAH-tus)
Gas passed through the rectum.

Foodborne Illness (FOOD-born IL-nus)
An acute gastrointestinal infection caused by food that contains harmful bacteria. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and chills. Also called food poisoning.

Fulminant Hepatic Failure (FHF) (FOOL-muh-nunt heh-PAT- ik FAYL-yoor)
Liver failure that occurs suddenly in a previously healthy person. The most common causes of FHF are acute hepatitis, acetaminophen overdose and liver damage from prescription drugs.

Functional Disorders (FUNK-shun-ul dis-or-durz)
Disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. These conditions result from poor nerve and muscle function. Symptoms such as gas, pain, constipation, and diarrhea come back again and again, but there are no signs of disease or damage. Emotional stress can trigger symptoms. Also called motility disorders.

Fungus (FUN-gus)
A mold or yeast such as Candidiasis that may cause infection.

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