GI Resources

Barrett’s Esophagus

The cells lining the esophagus differ from those lining the stomach or intestines, mainly because they have different functions. Normally, there is an area at the end of the esophagus that marks the border between the cells of the esophagus and those of the stomach. Barrett’s esophagus is the abnormal growth of stomach or intestinal-type cells above this border, into the esophagus.


When chronic diseases cause the liver to become permanently injured and scarred, the condition is called cirrhosis.

Colorectal Cancer

Although there’s a general misconception that it’s mainly a male disease, both men and women develop colorectal cancer with almost equal frequency. In fact, more women over the age of 75 die of colorectal cancer than of breast cancer.


Diverticulosis, coming from the latin word diverticulum, means a small pouch or a weak spot in the colon or large intestine which yields to pressure from food or gas within the colon.


Gallstones are pieces of hard solid matter in the gallbladder. They form when the components of bile (especially cholesterol and bilirubin) precipitate out of solution and form crystals, much as sugar may collect in the bottom of a syrup jar.

Heartburn and GERD

People will experience heartburn symptoms when excessive amounts of acid reflux into the esophagus.


Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the lower rectum or anus caused by increased pressure. They develop more commonly in association with constipation and straining, pregnancy or as a result of heavy lifting. Hemorrhoids can protrude outward, or cause pain, itching or bleeding. They are very common and affect about half of Americans by age 50. Unfortunately, hemorrhoids often persist or recur and can worsen with time.

Hiatal Hernia

A hernia is the protrusion of an organ through a wall of the cavity in which it is normally enclosed. In hiatal hernia it is the stomach that protrudes through the hiatus in the diaphragm into the chest cavity.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease is a name given to a group of chronic digestive diseases of the small and large intestines. Your doctor may refer to your particular condition by any one of several terms, including colitis, proctitis, enteritis and ileitis. Most often, doctors divide IBD into two groups: ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

Irritable Bowel

Also known as spastic colon, mucus colitis and a variety of other names, this condition consists of a functional disorder of the large intestine or colon.


In pancreatitis, the digestive enzymes for transport into the intestines escape into the unprotected surrounding tissues, which they proceed to digest and destroy. This results in considerable swelling or inflammation and increased amounts of blood in the pancreatic vessels.

Peptic Ulcer

An ulcer of the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, just beyond the stomach.

Silent (Extraesophageal) Reflux (EER)

EER is essentially the direct injury to areas of the body, in addition to the esophagus, by continued acid and pepsin exposure. This is not unlike GERD; however, patients with EER may not suffer from symptoms of heartburn or regurgitation. Therefore, EER is often called Silent Reflux.

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